At the end of the last century, the Bologna process was started. Studying today is very different from studying some decades ago. New terms and rules were introduced, names of academic degrees were changed, students should be encouraged to spend some time at other universities, etc. When you finish your studies, you will receive a Bachelor's degree after three years. You can then extend your studies by graduating in order to get a Master's degree. And after this you can do a PhD. “Bachelor” and “Master” have replaced the German or Swiss “Vordiplom” or “Zwischenprüfung” and the “Lizentiat,” “Diplom,” and “Magister.”
The Bachelor's degree was also intended to allow students to leave university after only a few years, but with a degree instead of as drop-out students. However, nobody knew whether these new degrees would be accepted by employers. Switzerland therefore decided to have the Master's degree as the regular graduation degree – the Bachelor's degree is only meant as an intermediary degree, but can be useful if students decide to leave university for some years to get practical experience.
One consequence is that there are only loose requirements concerning the Bachelor's degree if you apply for a Master's program in Switzerland – you merely need a “relevant” Master's degree. In some universities you can even start attending Master's courses and earn credit points towards your Master's degree before finishing your Bachelor's studies. I always have students fill out a short survey in the very first lecture; among other things, I ask what they study and in which semester they are. In Basel, some students stated that they are in a Master's program in the 12th semester – which translates to “I have been studying for 12 semesters and I am now doing a Master's program.” It's not the 12th semester of this Master's program. Students see the Bachelor as an intermediary degree. Often you even don't have to write a Bachelor's thesis. Which is really strange for studies in the humanities and arts: You leave university with a degree but you never worked on a longer project or wrote a thesis (i.e., a paper exceeding 20 pages).
In contrast, in Germany the Bachelor's degree is a recognized graduation degree. For entering a Master's program, you need a "good" Bachelor's degree (grade 2.5 or better on a scale from 5 to 1 with 1 being the highest grade), even if this is not a program with restricted admission (numerus clausus). So, only the best students are allowed to pursue their studies. As one consequence, the drop-out rate in German Master's programs is very low.
So, from the administrative perspective, a Bachelor's degree in Germany and in Switzerland means something different.
Another new concept is the “module.” You have to earn a certain amount of credit points in each of the modules that make up your program. The modules appear on your transcript of records. Modularization is intended to make it easier to study some time at another university and to get credit for those courses at your home university. Of course this would mean that modules in Computer Science or Spanish Literature or Theoretical Physics at different universities are comparable or even equivalent in terms of content, achievable competencies, and time and effort.
So far I have taught at the University of Zurich, the University of Basel (both are Swiss Universities), the University of Konstanz (Germany), and I was E-Learning consultant at the School of Social Work at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland.
At the University of Zurich, a lecture or seminar is equivalent to a module. Modules are defined in study regulations that have to be approved by the Faculty. Which means: it is not that easy to change the title, the credit points, or the scope of a module. If there was a certain course before Bologna, e.g., “Introduction to Programming for Computational Linguists,” this course still exists and is now a module. Module names and lecture names are identical. Some introductury lectures used to span several semesters like “Introduction to Computational Linguistics I” and “Introduction to Computational Linguistics II.” This resulted in the creation of two modules with these names, each containing exact one lecture (and a lab course) of exactly the same name – wouldn't it made have sense to create one module “Introduction to Computational Linguistics” containing two lectures to be attend in two consecutive semesters? Well, apparently they didn't think so in Zurich.
As a consequence, a module is worth 3 to 6 credit points, and you have to do a lot of modules to obtain a degree. From the institutional point of view, this makes it difficult to have courses offered by adjunct lecturers or courses on special topics. How to create a module with a rather vague name or with a title allowing for change? It's also difficult if you would like to allow students to earn credits from small projects as part of research projects, from contributing to publications, or from presenting their projects at workshops or conferences. This shouldn't be mandatory for all students.
At the School of Social Work at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, they created a study program from scratch: Modules are intended to enable students to acquire a set of competences. A module may cover several semesters, some modules even run through your entire Bachelor's program. During a semester, students attend certain courses. However, the concept of a course has been redefined: There is no longer one lecturer teaching a whole course over 15 weeks. The lecturer responsible for a module defines learning objectives and an overall theme for a certain course. Then he invites colleagues to contribute to this course by teaching one or two sessions within this course. As a student, you are faced with another lecturer each week; as a lecturer, you teach on your area of expertise in various courses. This concept involves a lot of organisational effort, but I consider it to be a good implementation of the general idea of modules.
At the University of Konstanz, the concept of modules in the Linguistic Department seems to follow the categorization of introductory, intermediate, and advanced courses which would have been named “Proseminar,” “Seminar,” and “Hauptseminar” in the old system. For some modules all courses are mandatory, for most of the modules you have to earn a certain number of credits but you can choose from a range of courses. You only have to pass a small number of modules during your studies. In my surveys, some students thus stated that they are attending my class “to get the last credits needed to pass module 3.” In the advanced modules there is always a course named “Current Topics in X” allowing to allocate invited, one-of courses by experts – for example, I teach “Methods and Applications in Automatic Authoring Support” this semester as an instance of “Current Topics in Speech and Language Processing.”
This implementation of Bologna is a little more conservative, but also makes sense. It counters the criticism that university studies are overly regulated, as it allows students to decide on their own which courses they want to take in order to gain the required credits.
Of course, universities should be free to interpret “Bologna.” However, some interpretations make more sense than others. Clearly, having different interpretations of “Bologna” also reduces the interoperability of courses and the mobility of students.